The core is composed of several groups of muscles including the transverse abdominous, pelvic floor muscles, multifidus, and diaphragm. These muscles work together to produce stability in the abdominal region as well as coordination of movements of the arms, legs, and spine. Engaging these muscles is something that is not done consciously so it is important to know how to contract them during exercise.
Core exercises strengthen the core muscles which abdominal, back, and pelvic muscles. Strong core muscles allow you to do other physical activities with more ease and will help if you suffer from low back pain.
The first group is floor exercises that don't require much movement but put constant tension on the muscles As you get better at these exercises you will increase the duration that you are able to perform them.
The side plank works your entire core and upper- and lower-body muscles. Lie down on your right side. Bend the right arm so the elbow rests on the ground(elbows at 90° degrees) If you have back pain you can do this with knees bent on the ground. Then using your glutes squeeze and lift the lower back off the ground. Take 3- 6 deep breaths pushing the hips upward as you breathe in and down as you exhale
Bird dog exercise
This is a very effective core exercise that can be done with the back still in pain. Start on all fours in the quadruped position then extend the left leg pain and then the right arm forward. Hold for a few seconds and proceed to do the opposite-right leg back, left arm extended
This exercise is one of the most challenging. Lie on your back with your arms extended and raise your legs until they are perpendicular to the floor. Slowly lower your legs to the side as low as you can while maintaining complete shoulder and back contact with the floor. Bring your legs back up to center and lower them to the other side
Plank on a Swiss ball
This is a variation of the static plank. There are two possible executions: You can place your forearms on the Swiss ball with your feet on the ground or you can place your feet on the ball with your forearms on the ground. Keep your abs and glutes tight, and do not arch your back. Hold this position as long as possible. Move the ball slightly from side to side for an advanced movement.
Lying glute pushup
The lying glute pushup targets your butt and back muscles. Lie on your back with your feet resting on top of a Swiss ball. Push through your heels to raise your butt off the floor as high as possible. Form a straight line from your knees to your shoulders. Hold this position for 60 seconds.